USSR Falls,  Oslo Accords and Assassination of Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin: 1990-1999

The Berlin Wall fell in November, 1989 and the Soviet Union collapsed in the early 90’s, leading to the establishment of a series of new republics in Eastern and Central Europe.

In August, 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait, leading to the 1991 Gulf War.  Iraq launched 39 SCUD missiles against Israel, generating anxiety and fears of chemical warheads.  Israelis set up security rooms in their homes, and wear gas masks.

Following the war, American President George Bush and his Secretary of State James Baker convene the Madrid Peace Conference, the first time that official Israeli and Palestinian delegations sit together at the same conference.

In May, 1991, Operation Solomon, a secret airlift, brings 8,000 Ethiopian Jews to Israel.  By the end of the 90s there will be 70,000 Ethiopian Jews in Israel.

Throughout the 90s, the second mass wave of Jews from the former Soviet Union continues.  By the end of the century over l million former Soviet Jews will have come on aliya.

The Oslo Accords between Israel and the PLO are signed in 1993.  The Declaration of Principles are signed on the White House lawn by Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yassir Arafat, hosted by American President Bill Clinton.
In 1994, the Gaza Jericho First Agreement is signed, and Arafat and his associates come from Tunis to Gaza. 1994 also

marks the Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty, signed in the Arava desert by Rabin and Jordan’s King Hussein. Prime Minister Rabin, Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and PLO Chairman Yassir Arafat are awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1994.

On November 4th, 1995, Prime Minister Rabin is assassinated by Jewish extremist Yigal Amir, after speaking at a rally in Tel Aviv against violence and for peace.

Benjamin Netanyahu is elected prime minister in 1996 and Ehud Barak is elected in 1999. Both pledge to continue the peace process.

WIZO Milestones

1990- 45 years after it was closed, the Hungarian WIZO Federation is revived in Budapest.  
         The Czech WIZO Federation is revived in Prague after 42 years of silence.
         European WIZO’s first conference in Eastern Europe opens in Budapest, with the participation 
         of 15 European WIZO Federations, in the presence of the Speaker of the Hungarian National Assembly.
         WIZO Olim Symphony Orchestra in memory of Hermann Gertler, for immigrant musicians, is established.
         European WIZO Seminar on Rashi held at Troyes, France, to mark 950th anniversary of his birth there.
         Rebecca Sieff Centenary Exhibition, “Speaking for Women” opened at the Beit Hatefutzot Diaspora Museum
         in Tel Aviv.

1991- During Gulf War, WIZO day care centers near hospitals remain open 24 hours a day to care for children 
         of hospital staff on duty.
         WIZO Israel Department of War Widows is expanded to include Single Parent Families, following the 
         arrival of many single parent families from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia.
         WIZO Israel’s Department for Immigrant Absorption awarded Knesset Speaker’s Quality of Life Prize.
         Special day care center with Amharic speaking staff opened at Jerusalem Baby Home for Ethiopian
         infants from Operation Solomon.
         WIZO Hadassim Children and Youth Village absorbs first group of Ethiopian youth educated 
         outside of religious frameworks.
         International Symposium on Anti-Semitism held in the framework of 20th World WIZO Conference in Tel Aviv.

1992- 30 refugee children from Sarajevo absorbed by WIZO Nachlat Yehuda Boarding School, 
         sponsored by WIZO Switzerland.
         WIZO Israel’s first annual Druze Women’s week held.
         Former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher opens WIZO day care center in her name 
         at Sderot development town, sponsored by British WIZO.

1993- First two multi-purpose day care centers for high risk children opened in Jaffa and Jerusalem.
         WIZO center for Bedouin women opened in Nujidat in the Galilee.
         WIZO institutions give hospitality to children evacuated from northern border due to Katyusha 
         rocket attacks from Lebanon.
         Hadassah-WIZO Canada holds 75th anniversary celebrations and 34th National Convention in Israel.

1994- Susi and Freddy Bradfield Community Center opened in Pisgat Zeev neighborhood of Jerusalem.
         Ruthie and Uri Makov Club for Girls in Distress, first of its kind, opened in Holon.
         Students from the Naaleh immigrant youth study program enjoy a Passover seder together with 
         their parents at the WIZO Nachlat Yehuda School and Youth Village, sponsored by WIZO Switzerland.
         The Helena Glaser Center for the Treatment and Prevention of Domestic Violence, Ramat Gan and a 
         similar center in Jerusalem are opened, based upon preventive treatment within the community.
         WIZO Nahalal School and Youth Village, sponsored by Hadassah-WIZO Canada, chosen by Regional 
         Council as regional center for  environmental education for entire Jezreal Valley.
         WIZO Israel opens first “Art of Marriage” workshops for young couples.

1995- WIZO Israel organizes mass demonstration of women’s organizations in Tel Aviv, at the initiative of 
         Helena Glaser, to alert the public to increase in spouse murders.
         WIZO Israel marks World WIZO’s 75th anniversary at the Knesset with participation of WIZO leaders 
         from around the world.  Guest of honor is the Israeli President’s wife, Reuma Weizman.
         WIZO delegation to UN Women’s Forum in Beijing led by Helena Glaser.
         WIZO opens second Shelter for Battered Women, supported by British WIZO.
         Committee for Advancement of Women in Politics set up by WIZO Israel.
         First summer camp for working mothers, Jewish and Arab, organized by WIZO Haifa.

1996- WIZO’s 2lst World Conference marks the movement’s 75th anniversary and the 3000th anniversary of Jerusalem.
         A major Plenary Session is devoted to Israel-Diaspora relations.  
         Michal Modai is elected the 4th President of World WIZO.  
         WIZO Israel begins tradition of holding a seminar on “The International Day Against Violence in the Family,” 
         focusing on the murder of women by their partners. Guest of honor is former Supreme Court Chief Justice
         Meir Shamgar.
         WIZO Israel’s Commission for the Advancement of Women in Politics holds a political marathon in Tel Aviv, 
         featuring representatives of all the political parties.

1997- WIZO education system adapts to changes in Israeli education.  Matriculation exams are now emphasized
         in all WIZO schools, with an above national average result.  WIZO schools lead the way in absorbing 
         Russian and Ethiopian immigrant youth.
         3,000 WIZO Israel chaverot, from Eilat in the south to Kiryat Shemonah in the north, come to Jerusalem 
         to express solidarity with the 3,000 year old city.
         To mark the l00th anniversary of the first Zionist Congress, the 1997 International WIZO Aviv Seminar, 
         “From Basel to Jerusalem: From Vision to Reality,” begins in Basel, Switzerland, and concludes in Jerusalem,
         an extraordinary experience for the young delegates who come from 20 countries.
         WIZO opens its first two day care centers in the new town of Modi’in.

1998- Jewish unity and the maintenance of both a Jewish and a democratic State of Israel were key themes 
         in the 1998 World WIZO Plenary.
         “The State and I” poetry, painting and song competition for children is organized by “Bamat Haisha” 
         in honor of the state’s 50th anniversary.
         WIZO has 24 delegates from Israel and around the world at the 33rd Zionist Congress in Jerusalem, 
         marking the l00th anniversary of the first Zionist Congress and the 50th anniversary of the state.
         Two graduates of WIZO schools, Shaul Mofaz and Uzi Dayan are appointed Chief of Staff and Deputy 
         Chief of Staff of the IDF.
         WIZO Review, first published in 1939 under the name WIZO in Israel, marks its jubilee year with a special 
         review of its history.
         A special ceremony at the President’s Residence in Jerusalem marks 75 years of WIZO schools’ 
         educational achievement.
         WIZO Israel begins workshops on violence in courtship for teenagers.
         WIZO Israel’s Department of the Status of Women plays a major role in the passage of a law for 
         the prevention of sexual harassment.

1999- The Presidents of new WIZO Federations in Eastern and Central Europe Hana Finkelstein, Latvia; 
         Zuzana Vesela, zech Republic; and Rachel Kostanian, Lithuania, are welcomed at the 1999 World WIZO Plenary.
         The first International WIZO Lapid Seminar for prime-time women leaders from WIZO Federations around 
         the world, aged 45-60, is held alongside the Plenary.
         World WIZO Chairperson Helena Glaser is elected Chairman of the National Voluntary and Nonprofit Sector, 
         and reelected for two more terms.
         14 women are elected to the Knesset, the largest number in history, including the first female Arab MK, 
         Hosniya Jabbara, and Dalia Rabin, daughter of the late prime minister.  A reception is held for all of them 
         by WIZO Israel’s Commission for the Advancement of Women in Politics.
         The Adisia embroidery project for Ethiopian women is founded in Afula.